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The Link Between CSE and Sharia Law
Is there a connection between CSE and Sharia Law?
NB: For anyone affected by CSE Fighting Exploitation is one organisation that may be able to help.
We believe the fact that several national parliaments have been forced to pull legislation outlawing under-age marriages or at least turn a blind eye to the law being ignored, amid claims that it is against Islamic law is alone sufficient to establish the link, especially given http://www.shariawatch.org.uk/content/echr-judgement-relating-sharia-law-2003 the legal rulings relating to sharia law and the status of women. (see also http://www.shariawatch.org.uk/articles/sharia-family-law-and-women
There are two aspects to this, firstly what Sharia says about the age at which girls can be married which effectively sets the age at which sexual relationships are permitted. The second is what Islam more generally teaches about we Kuffar or non-Muslims and the attitudes engendered by that teaching.;
Manual of Sharia:
This is a translation of the sections on slavery that weren't translated in the original classic translation which doubtless helps inform the Muslim mindset with regard to non-Muslim women:
Nuh Ha Mim Keller translated Reliance of the Traveler from Arabic into English. In the section entitled manumission (which is about all of slavery, not just about freeing slaves as the title would suggest), Keller did not translate sections K32.1, 32.2, 32.3 and 32.4. He wrote “the following four sections have been left untranslated (into English) because the issue is no longer current…” To his credit, he left the Arabic text in the book. With the increasing importance of the Shariah throughout the world, it should all be translated. After all, it is not clear that groups like ISIS consider any section in Islamic Sacred Law “not current”.
I looked on the internet for a reliable translation of these portions of the Shariah but was unable to locate one. Therefore I asked for help from some Arab friends and they provided the following:
K32.1 Women and children of the land that has been conquered are considered booty of the war and they are considered slaves. Everything belongs to the Imam first and after he takes a fifth of the booty the rest is given to the soldiers who were involved in the war. If the slave becomes a Muslim this conversion does not set him free and he will stay a slave. Captivity is the absolute consequence of Muslims war with non-Muslims and is not exclusive to elementary Jihad or defensive Jihad, even in the presence of the prophet or Imam and with their permission. If Jihad was done without the permission of prophet or Imam, all the booty is given to the Imam.
K32.2 If the father and mother were brought as slaves all the children are considered slaves. Being a slave is inherited from parents to child. If the parents convert to Islam the children will still be slaves, and they belong to the owner of their family. The master can sell the children to someone else without the parents’ consent. Male slaves and female slaves are considered the property of their master and he is allowed to treat them the way he wants. The satisfaction of the slave does not matter. The slave is responsible to keep his/her master satisfied. The slave eats, drinks and wears whatever the master decides and must live where the master says. He/she should clothe him/herself the way the master decides and speak and behave the way the master says.
K32.3 The master who owns a woman slave can use her in any way for his sexual pleasure; he can marry her if he wants. In intercourse the satisfaction of the female slave is not important at all. The female slave does not have to be Muslim convert. Even if she is pagan the sexual intercourse is Halal (permissible). A female Muslim is not allowed to have sexual relation with her slave without marriage. The male slaves are considered “mahram (impermissible, taboo)”. The Koran has emphasized this point. The Mola (Master) not only has the right to marry his female slave without her consent but he is also allowed to lend her to another man without her consent to have sexual intercourse without marriage. He also has the authority to marry her to one of his male slaves.
K32.4 The master is allowed to cancel the marriage of his male and female slaves without “Talagh (divorce)”. It is enough for the master to order them to separate and they must obey. The female slave does not have to hide her hair, neck and head while saying Muslim prayer “Namaz “. The Hijab of the female slave must be different from those of the wife and daughters of the master.
This scholar is at an organisation that trains hundreds of imams each year: Islamic scholar ‘says Allah allows Muslim men to RAPE non-Muslim women to humiliate them'. What attitudes are they likely tohave if this is part of their tutition?
Also this Hadith Sahih Bukhari Vol 7, Book 62:68 "O Allah's Messenger! A virgin feels shy." [Muhammed] said, "Her consent is her silence."
Also Quran 33:59:
Yusuf Ali: O Prophet! Tell thy wives and daughters, and the believing women, that they should cast their outer garments over their persons (when abroad): that is most convenient, that they should be known (as such) and not molested. And Allah is Oft-Forgiving, Most Merciful.
This Tafsir(commentary) on this verse is also quite illuminating: http://www.islamicstudies.info/tafheem.php?sura=33&verse=59
This seems to indicate that molesting non-Muslim women who are not 'covered' is acceptable.
Sharia: Age of Marriage for girls
This is based on the age at which their prophet Muhammad consumated his marriage to Aisha which according to http://hadithcollection.com/sahihbukhari/91--sp-101/4575-sahih-bukhari-volume-005-book-058-hadith-number-236.html Bukhari, Volume 5, Book 58, 236, a widely respected resource within the Islamic world, was when she was nine years old. As some may point out, this may have been a fairly common practice at the time. The worrying thing is, as the examples below show, there is wide spread acceptance within Islam that the mores of the 7th century are still relevant and should be practiced today and that the Sharia law provisions take precedent over secular law:
Robert Spencer of Jihad Watch summarises the position clearly here:
Few things are more abundantly attested in Islamic law than the permissibility of child marriage. Islamic tradition records that Muhammad’s favorite wife, Aisha, was six when Muhammad wedded her and nine when he consummated the marriage:
“The Prophet wrote the (marriage contract) with Aisha while she was six years old and consummated his marriage with her while she was nine years old and she remained with him for nine years (i.e. till his death)” (Bukhari 7.62.88).
Another tradition has Aisha herself recount the scene:
The Prophet engaged me when I was a girl of six (years). We went to Medina and stayed at the home of Bani-al-Harith bin Khazraj. Then I got ill and my hair fell down. Later on my hair grew (again) and my mother, Um Ruman, came to me while I was playing in a swing with some of my girl friends. She called me, and I went to her, not knowing what she wanted to do to me. She caught me by the hand and made me stand at the door of the house. I was breathless then, and when my breathing became all right, she took some water and rubbed my face and head with it. Then she took me into the house. There in the house I saw some Ansari women who said, “Best wishes and Allah’s Blessing and a good luck.” Then she entrusted me to them and they prepared me (for the marriage). Unexpectedly Allah’s Apostle came to me in the forenoon and my mother handed me over to him, and at that time I was a girl of nine years of age. (Bukhari 5.58.234).
Muhammad was at this time fifty-four years old.
Marrying young girls was not all that unusual for its time, but because in Islam Muhammad is the supreme example of conduct (cf. Qur’an 33:21), he is considered exemplary in this unto today.
Robert Spencer also addresses Islamic attempts to stop the introduction of laws against underage-marriage in Malaysia, Nigeria etc.
This discussion An Examination of Muhammad’s Relationship with a Nine-Year-Old Girl is of interest and tries to present a reasonable balance.
Countries where legislation has been affected by Islamic pressure:
An overview by Robert Spencer: https://www.jihadwatch.org/2017/12/malaysia-imam-says-girls-should-marry-before-15-otherwise-their-value-drops
Parliament has rejected a measure that would have barred men from marrying girls younger than 16, saying the proposal ran counter to Islamic ideology: http://m.washingtontimes.com/news/2013/jun/10/afghan-parliament-upholds-right-marry-children/
Officials forced to pull law banning child marriage as Sharia enforcers say it's UNISLAMIC:
Proposed law on "child brides" bows to conservative Islam:
"Most Gulf States continue to observe Sharia family laws. Islamic law makes no stipulation concerning a girl's age at the time of her marriage."
This PhD thesis looks at how Sharia law has developed (or not) with some interesting observations: https://www.academia.edu/8299818/Personal_Status_Laws_in_Gulf_States_A_Comparative_Study_into_Guardianship_Laws_in_Marriage
"Makassar, 26 March (AKI/Jakarta Post) - A prominent cleric from Indonesia's biggest Muslim organisation, the Nahdlatul Ulama, says that Islamic sharia law should take precedence over laws passed by the parliament."
"The minimum age of 16 years to marry under the prevailing 1974 marriage law is not a sharia-binding regulation for Muslims, according to Nahdlatul Ulama (NU) jurists"
Whilst Iran does have a law on the statuatory age of marriage, it can be by-passed with the consent of the child's father (note not the mother).
Previously;the chairman for the legal affairs committee, said matter-of-factly: "As some people may not comply with our current Islamic legal;system, we must regard 9 as being the appropriate age for a girl to have reached puberty and qualified to get married. To do otherwise would be to contradict and;challenge Islamic Sharia law:
According to the Islamic Republic civil code, the legal age of marriage in Iran is 13 for girls and 15 for boys. However, the same Act allows girls below 13 and boys below 15 to married with the consent of their father or the permission of a court judge
Which was what happened to this lady:
http://jamieglazov.com/2018/01/04/anni-cyrus-my-bruised-eye-as-a-child-under-islam/ Beaten for questioning child marriage.
The bill includes provisions that would legalise marital rape and child marriage and ban Muslims from marrying non-Muslims.
Syrian Refugees Fuel Underage Marriage in Jordan:
Child marriages not rare in Malaysia with 15,000 underage brides, activists say: "Islamic laws here places the legal marrying age for Muslim boys and girls at 18 and 16, with girls aged below 16 allowed to be married off with the consent of the Shariah court." [Another legal loophole]
"Consent is given by the Shariah Court for children aged nine and above to get married, but it is not as easy as it seems"
Saudi Arabia Grand Mufti: 'Nothing Wrong' With Child Brides: http://www.breitbart.com/national-security/2014/12/26/saudi-arabia-grand-mufti-nothing-wrong-with-child-brides/
"New Saudi Fatwa Defends Paedophilia as 'Marriage'; 'Muslim 'child-marriage' - euphemism for pedophilia - is making headlines again, at least in Arabic media: A prominent cleric and member of Saudi Arabia's highest religious council, just issued a fatwa asserting that there is no minimum age for marriage, andthat girls can be married 'even if they are in the cradle.' it insists that nowhere does Sharia set an age limit for marrying girls: like countless Muslim;scholars before him, he relies on Koran 65:4, which discusses marriage to females who have not yet begun menstruating (i.e., are prepubescent) and the fact that;Muhammad, Islam's role model, married Aisha when she was 6-years-old, 'consummating' the marriage - or, in modern parlance, raping her - when she was 9.'
Girls Should Wear the Hijab Before the Age of Two To Avoid Tempting Men:
For Information: Quran 65:4 (Yusuf Ali Translation) says:
Such of your women as have passed the age of monthly courses, for them the;prescribed period, if ye have any doubts, is three months, and for those who;have no courses [it is the same]: for those who carry [life within their wombs],;their period is until they deliver their burdens: and for those who fear Allah,;He will make their path easy.
N.B. Courses refers to menstruation.
In 2009, Yemen's parliament passed legislation raising the minimum age of marriage to 17. But conservative parliamentarians argued the bill violated Islamic law, which does not stipulate a minimum age of marriage, and the bill was never signed.
Activist groups and politicians are still trying change the law, but more than 100 leading religious clerics have said restricting the age of marriage is "un-Islamic."
Islamic Leader Says Underage Marriage Is A Muslim Right, Demands Respect For Muslim Sensibilities:
33% of Turkish marriages involve underage brides; women's rights advocate. The legal age for marriage has been raised to 17 from 15 but it is estimated that between 25% and 33% of marriages involve underage children:
Imam Urges Denmark To Allow Muslim Child Brides: 'It's Part Of Their Culture'
Muslims in Italy explaining how women should be dressed: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=V-bJR9cDb6k
Child Brides 'Tolerated' In European Asylum Centres: http://www.breitbart.com/london/2016/04/21/child-brides-sometimes-tolerated-asylum-centres-despite-law/
Ten Algerians Arrested For Sexual Abuse of Underage Girls: http://www.breitbart.com/london/2018/03/24/ten-algerians-arrested-sexual-abuse-underage-girls/
House of Commons;Home Affairs Committee:
Andrew Norfolk suggested that issues around the age of consent may play a role, pointing out that;If you come from a rural Mirpuri, Kashmiri community, where, whatever state law says, village tradition and sharia says that puberty is the green light for marriage-as it does-and if you recognise that most girls in this country are hitting puberty at 11;or 12, perhaps one begins to understand why it is not just lone offenders. There has to be something, given that so often this is a normalised group activity-not among a major criminal gang, but among friends, work colleagues and relatives-that does not have the same sense of shame attached to it as would be the case for your typical White offender, who works alone because if he told too many people, somebody would report him.
This report claims Muslim men are 200 Times More Likely To Street Groom and Rape Children:
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=kKDgfO70c0w based on the numbers convicted relative to the percentage of the general population. It further claims that 75% of mosques requested to read out a statement condemning this activity refused to do so. According to this http://www.dailymail.co.uk/news/article-3137441/New-police-probe-child-sex-attacks-Rotherham-identified-300-abuse-suspects-far.html at least 300 suspects face arrest over Rotherham. http://www.nationalcrimeagency.gov.uk/news/639-rotherham-investigation-update
To sum up this section, for several national parliaments to be forced to withdraw legislation banning underage marriage because "it is counter to Islamic law" clearly shows sufficient popular pressure that the Sharia belief about the age at which girls can marry is widespread and not confined to a few 'extremist' clerics. Furthermore, there is also widespread contempt for secular law which is shown by the willingness of imams to ignore secular law, even in countries like the UK.
Sharia law which is rooted in the Quran and Sunnah clearly sets a cultural framework relating to the age at which sexual relations are permitted which is clearly at odds with current secular values. In the next section we will look at how that Islamic cultural framework views non-Muslims.
Islam and non-Muslims
Firstly, this section cannot be said to represent all Muslim views and sects but it does show that Islamic views of non-believers (Kuffar) are frequently less than benign and contrary to what many of our politicians and media say, such views do have support within Islamic texts.
In the aftermath of the Paris attacks last November, this senior Tory who is a Muslim, made these candid points:
Teach young Muslims to treat Christians, Jews, Hindus, Sikhs, Buddhists, atheists etc as full equal members of society entitled to exactly the same level of respect as given to fellow Muslims?
Teach young Muslims that religious practice is a matter between the individual and God, and no Muslim has the right to denounce another for being 'insufficiently Muslim' or worse still to contend that someone who self-describes as a Muslim is outside the religion? (This is known as 'takfir', is widely practised by ISIL and provides their religious justification for killing other people who self-describe as Muslims.)
Respect people who are lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender as full equal members of society?
Encourage British Muslims to join non-religiously based civil society organisations such as mainstream political parties, The National Trust, The Women's Institute etc. so that they associate regularly with people of all religious backgrounds rather than spending all their free time with other Muslims?
eg Hate taught in madrassa: http://www.shariawatch.org.uk/?q=content/secret-filming-reveals-hatred-been-taught-uk-muslim-schools
The point I am trying to illustrate here is that he felt that they needed to be made because they speak of a total separation of culture and values. As much as this may grate with some readers, it shows a cultural and values gulf between Islamic communities and the West. That is as true of many Muslims born here as it is of recent immigrants. This quote from an excellent blog lays out the issue clearly:
Cultural superiority is a doctrine of Islam that actually has a name; it's called Jahiliyya and literally means that any culture without Islam is 'ignorant and stupid.'
This cultural divide is reflected in http://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/uknews/1510866/Poll-reveals-40pc-of-Muslims-want-sharia-law-in-UK.htm
40% of Muslims in the UK wanting Sharia Law and in polls which show that:
https://www.wzb.eu/en/press-release/islamic-fundamentalism-is-widely-spread 'Two thirds of the Muslims interviewed say that religious rules are more important to them than the laws of the country in which they live. Three quarters of the respondents hold the opinion that there is only one legitimate interpretation of the Koran' (Poll of 9000 people across 6 European countries)
45% of Muslims support hate preachers, 11% support jihad against the West -BBC Poll
It is notable that the BBC poll has totally opposite results to the other two with regard to the secular laws v Sharia law issue.
It is also noticeable in the 'peace at any cost' reactions of the authorities across Europe:
Birmingham City Council hid links between Asian cabbies and child sex victims for 23 years
Cologne Police Reveal 'Cover Up' Of New Year's Eve Rape Attacks Ordered By Government
The next question is, what is the source of this divergence of views. The items below give some clear pointers as to how this is occurring:
Quran 33:59: 'O Prophet, tell your wives and your daughters and the women of the believers to bring down over themselves of their outer garments. That is more suitable that they will be known and not be abused. And ever is Allah Forgiving and Merciful.' The implication there is that if women do not cover themselves adequately with their outer garments, they may be abused, and that such abuse would be justified.
This 2007 poll on Muslim attitudes http://www.policyexchange.org.uk/images/publications/living%20apart%20together%20-%20jan%2007.pdf
86% say religion most important thing in life, 37% of younger Muslims prefer to send their kids to an Islamic school is also illustrative of a very different cultural attitude between Muslims and non-Muslims as is the fact that Muslim parents opt to send their children to Islamic madrassa that teach amongst other things, https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=uRH6EV5rRMU
'List the reprehensible qualities of Jews' and 'non-Muslims should step out of the way of Muslims' - BBC Panorama 22nd Nov 2010.
Education chiefs allege that children are being being taught a very narrow, misogynist and anti-Semitic curriculum in some schools. This isn't just the children, parents are actively choosing to send the children to these, often unregistered, schools.
Thousands of pupils at unregistered schools 'are at risk of radicalisation because of misogynistic, homophobic and Islamic-focused curriculums,'
The first part of this video explains how non-Muslims are seen as 2nd class citizens compared to Muslims: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=igxJT3hPSdU&feature=youtu.be
This video from a Danish TV undercover report shows the attitude to children: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=vy_rL5euRGE&feature=youtu.be
Beat your children well (Imam in Denmark - Video)
When you consider that over 60% of the Quran is devoted to non-believers (Kuffar), frequently in very pejorative terms:
The holiest book of Islam (http://www.politicalislam.com/blog/statistics-and-the-meaning-of-islam/ ) draws the sharpest of distinctions between Muslims (the best of people, 3:110) and non-believers (the worst of creatures, 98:6).; Praise is lavished on the former while the latter is condemned with scorching generalization.
Many people may be tempted to simply dismiss http://www.thereligionofpeace.com/pages/articles/quran-hate.aspx The Religon of Peace as a source but that does not change what is written in the Quran and other Islamic texts.. Check out the above references for yourself at: http://quran.com/98/6 Personally, I can't say that being described as 'the worst of creatures' makes me feel warmly about Islam!
Then there is the Islamic doctrine of wal'a wa bara', or 'loyalty and enmity':
Koran 60:4 is the cornerstone verse of this doctrine and speaks for itself: 'You [Muslims] have a good example in Abraham and those who followed him, for they said to their people, 'We disown you and the idols which you worship besides Allah.; We renounce you: enmity and hate shall reign between us until you believe in Allah alone'' (Koran 60:4, emphasis added).
Koran 58:22 praises Muslims who fight and kill their own non-Muslim family members: 'You shall find none who believe in Allah and the Last Day on friendly terms with those who oppose Allah and His Messenger -- even if they be their fathers, their sons, their brothers, or their nearest kindred.'
TEACHING INTOLERANCE IN PAKISTAN (RELIGIOUS BIAS IN PUBLIC SCHOOL TEXTBOOKS)
SAUDI PUBLICATIONS ON HATE IDEOLOGY INVADE AMERICAN MOSQUES
analysis of differences between secular and Islamic Sharia law show that Sharia law helps create this value and cultural gulf. From the Reliance of The Traveller, the classic manual of sharia law, things such as:
Non-Muslims should not walk in the path of Muslims
Non-Muslims are not equal citizens with Muslims
Non-Muslims must pay a special tax
Non-Muslim houses and places of worship cannot be built higher than Muslim buildings
New churches and other non-Muslim places of worship cannot be built
Testimony of women and non-Muslims is worth half that of Muslim males
Women inherit only half the amount awarded to men
Non-Muslims cannot be judges or rule over people, even other non-Muslims
Freedom of speech is curtailed by blasphemy laws
Freedom of religion is curtailed by apostasy law
Some people may point out that many of these things have applied in UK and other Western legal systems in the past. The key point is that our legal systems have evolved. Islamic Sharia law is as the ECHR Ruling Relating To Sharia Law (2003) said "stable and invariable".
This http://www.pewforum.org/files/2014/01/RestrictionsV-GRI.pdf research by the PEW Foundation;also clearly shows that Islamic countries predominate in having restrictions on religion so this hostility cannot be said to be purely cleric based when it infects most governments of Islamic countries.
What is truly terrifying for me is that so many Muslims jihadists base their brutality on Islamic texts. For example, this story of a teacher http://www.nzherald.co.nz/human-rights/news/article.cfm?c_id=500838&objectid=10413099 Disembowelled and torn apart for teaching girls by the Taliban is very similar to this account of http://www.exmuslim.org/umm-qirfa.html a woman torn apart by Zayd, Muhammad's adopted son, by driving camels apart . There is no mention in Islamic texts of http://www.webcitation.org/query?url=http://www.schnellmann.org/Robert_Spencer_The_Truth_About_Muhammad.pdf&date=2011-03-16 any rebuke from Muhammad for this cruel murder. This willingness by a large number of Muslims to embrace Sharia Law http://pres-outlook.org/2013/05/pew-research-center-finds-most-muslims-desire-sharia-as-official-law/ a majority world-wide according surveys by the PEW Foundation.
Some may argue that the cultural intolerance and desire for Sharia Law shttp://www.independent.co.uk/news/world/the-countries-where-a-majority-of-muslims-want-to-live-under-sharia-law-a6773666.html above is only part of Islam, however, http://www.shariawatch.org.uk/content/echr-judgement-relating-sharia-law-2003 it has been adopted by many countries and is being newly adopted by Brunei and he Malaysian state of Keletan. Whilst Muslims have been quick to protest at cartoons and the like, I have yet to hear any squeak of protest from Muslims about the further spread of Sharia Law so one can only assume that they approve or at best are indifferent.
This appears to have wandered a long way from the original objective of showing the link between CSE and Sharia but this cultural context is important because it is the background against which this street grooming takes place, as this lady, the founder of MARIAS states clearly.
"They are also taught that white non-Muslims are easy, cheap, dirty sluts and that it is their right [to take them]. ... On top of this, teaching people to hate anyone who is not a Muslim -- as is done in many mosques -- will, of course, lead to a lot of people hating anyone who is not a Muslim. ... The problem, however, is also due to police, judges, lawyers, and teachers, fearing the words 'racist' and 'Islamophobe' -- and nothing is being done to stop that." -- Toni Bugle, women's rights activist, founder of Mothers against Radical Islam and Sharia, and victim of child-rape.
How Sharia Law is Applied in the UK:
Dutch researcher finds Sharia 'courts' in the UK treat women as 2nd class citizens: http://www.christianconcern.com/our-concerns/islam/women-treated-as-second-class-citizens-by-sharia-courts
This is the conclusion of a four year study into Sharia courts in the UK by an expert in Islam who is also a Muslim.
THE Islamic law propagated by some sharia courts in the UK is more antiquated and extreme than in parts of Pakistan, according to a new book that claims they are prepared to condone wife-beating, ignore marital rape and allow a father to annul his daughter's marriage if he dislikes her choice of groom.
It is important to state, this does not apply to all Muslims but it affects a significant number and not only those born abroad.
The short and the long of it is, despite the desire by many people to deny, often with the best of intentions, the existence of a cultural divide one does exist and burying our heads in the sand or avoiding robust debate is not in fact helpful in the long run. Our ancestors fought long and hard for the rights and freedoms we enjoy today and we must step up to the plate and defend our values, http://www.shariawatch.org.uk/articles/west-not-defending-its-values something that we are signally failing to do at present.
I hope this short article has provided sufficient evidence of a clear link between Sharia Law and CSE to convince people to at least look at the subject. We cannot afford to be cowed by accusations of 'racist' or 'Islamophobia' and to continue to fail our children any longer in the name of 'community cohesion' as http://www.birminghammail.co.uk/news/midlands-news/birmingham-city-council-hid-links-8131813 Birmingham council and West Midlands police have apparently done. Equally, this is the damning conclusion of the government report into Rotherham council and the CSE grooming scandal there:
Rotherham Metropolitan Borough Council is not;fit for purpose. It is failing in its legal;obligation to secure continuous improvement in the way;in which it exercises its;functions. In particular, it is failing in;its duties to protect vulnerable children and;young people from harm.;This inspection revealed past and present;failures to accept, understand and combat;the issue of Child Sexual Exploitation (CSE),;resulting in a lack of support for victims;and insufficient action against known perpetrators.
The Council's culture is unhealthy: bullying, sexism, suppression and misplaced political correctness' have cemented its failures. The Council is currently incapable of tackling its weaknesses, without a sustained intervention.