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MUQADDIMAH by Abd Ar Rahman bin Muhammed ibn Khaldun (1332-1406)
In the Muslim community, the holy war [jihad] is a religious duty, because of the universalism of the Muslim mission and <b>the obligation to convert everybody to Islam either by persuasion or by force ... </b>The other religious groups did not have a universal mission, and the Holy War was not a religious duty for them, save only for purposes of defense ... They are merely required to establish their religion among their own people. That is why the Israelites after Moses and Joshua remained unconcerned with royal authority [e.g., a Caliphate]. Their only concern was to establish their religion [not spread it to the nations] … But Islam is under obligation to gain power over other nations.
A respected and celebrated Islamic scholar, Ibn Khaldun (1332-1406), studied Al Qur'an in its original Arabic and other Islamic texts.