The 14th century instruction manual for Sharia law for Sunni Shafi Muslims is the “Reliance of the Traveller”. This is the doctrinal manual for Sharia courts for the largest Islamic school. This is the reference and the text in that reference book.
e4.3: Circumcision is obligatory for both men and women. … for women [it consists of] removing the prepuce of the clitoris.
- Note: this more recent translation into English of the Reliance of the Traveller, deceptively translates the classical Arabic by translating the word "Hufaad", which means clitoris, and not "prepuce of the clitoris".
- But either way, BOTH translations are FGM, the correct, and the deliberately disingenuous.
From all of the above, we can say that FGM is overwhelmingly and predominantly a Muslim issue both in terms of real world outcomes of the practice of FGM, and in terms of the Islamic jurisprudence of FGM, despite the fact that it existed in pre-Islamic times. Islam took over the practice of FGM, and has since come to own it.