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Hudud-Punishments

Summary:


From the executive summary of a letter by a large number of Islamic scholars to ISIS intended to condemn their practices as 'un-Islamic': "16- It is forbidden in Islam to enact legal punishments (hudud) without following the correct procedures that ensure justice and mercy." As Robert Spencer says, "This one is noteworthy, for by it....all these scholars affirm that hudud punishments — stoning for adultery, amputation for theft, death for leaving Islam, etc. — can be enacted as long as one is following the correct procedures."

Robert Spencer:  https://counterjihadreport.com/tag/letter-to-baghdadi/

Letter: http://www.crethiplethi.com/files/cp_0113.pdf

Islam is more than a religion, it encompasses faith, culture, law and the social order. Islam proposes a society of righteousness and justice. Criminal behaviour is not tolerated in the Islamic order of society. Criminal behaviour is breach of God’s sovereignty, hence stiffer penalties are prescribed. This paper examines hudud punishments in Islamic penal system, and agitates for the reformation of Islamic criminal jurisprudence. While it is reasonable to punish offenders, and violators of normative principles, it is the opinion of this paper that punishments that are prescribed in municipal penal code should at least conform to international criminal jurisprudence.

....

Civil liberties like freedom of thought, conscience and religion, and religious liberties are criminal offenses punishable under Hudud crimes in Islam. Criminal procedure under shariah does not allow cross-examination of witness, or rebuttal testimony by the accused. The rules of evidence in Islamic criminal law exclude all men who lack credibility, and integrity in society (non-adl).  Women and non-Muslims are not allowed to testify. There is no provision for jury trial, or appeals.

https://www.google.co.uk/url?sa=t&rct=j&q=&esrc=s&source=web&cd=7&cad=rja&uact=8&ved=0ahUKEwjEye_33sXPAhUZM8AKHbsoAKMQFghBMAY&url=http%3A%2F%2Feujournal.org%2Findex.php%2Fesj%2Farticle%2Fdownload%2F3405%2F3169&usg=AFQjCNEBsQ-gKPnTgDEwUc8L0LHHocmV6Q&sig2=DQ6J6K-ZppojK2bLLaXWEg

  • Author(s):

    Summary: 

    Source: “Annual Report 2003 of the European Court of Human Rights, Council of Europe”

    Noting that the Welfare Party had pledged to set up a regime based on sharia law, the Court found that sharia was incompatible with the fundamental principles of democracy as set forth in the Convention. It considered that “sharia, which faithfully reflects the dogmas and divine rules laid down by religion, is stable and invariable. Principles such as pluralism in the political sphere or the constant evolution of public freedoms have no place in it”. According to the Court, it was difficult to declare one’s respect for democracy and human rights while at the same time supporting a regime based on sharia, which clearly diverged from Convention values, particularly with regard to its criminal law and criminal procedure, its rules on the legal status of women and the way it intervened in all spheres of private and public life in accordance with religious precepts.

  • Author(s):

    ECHR Ruling: 

    "sharia law is incompatible with democracy and human rights"

    Source: 

    Annual Report 2003 of the European Court of Human Rights

    Council of Europe

  • Country: 
    India
    News Date: 
    19/10/2019
    Summary: 

    Oh, no doubt about that. And due to the Left’s pusillanimity and willingness to accept Sharia blasphemy laws under the guise of “hate speech” prohibitions, this kind of thing is coming to the West as well. It won’t start with violence against “blasphemers.” But it will end with it.

  • Summary: 

    Interviewer:   "For someone who burns the Koran, the punishment according to Islam is death, is that correct?"


    Imam:            "If you burn the Koran, which is an insult, then clearly the answer is yes"!

    See also:

     

  • Country: 
    Syrian Arab Republic
    News Date: 
    30/09/2019
    Summary: 

    A female Isil supporter was killed and seven others injured during an exchange of gunfire over a secret Sharia court set up in a Syrian camp holding displaced women and children. 

    The row broke out when a group of female Isil supporters ordered that several other women in the foreigners' section of al-Hol camp be given lashes for refusing to attend an informal Koranic studies class. 

  • Country: 
    United Kingdom (UK)
    News Date: 
    13/10/2019
    Summary: 

    Sure, but what makes the amputation of thieves’ hands acceptable in the Muslim world but not in the UK? It’s a Qur’anic command (5:38). Abu Usamah At-Thahabi’s answer would probably be that Britain is not a Sharia state or even a majority-Muslim country, and so Islamic law cannot be fully enforced.

  • Author(s):

    Summary: 

    This report surveys the apostasy laws of twenty-three countries in Africa, the Middle East, South Asia, and Southeast Asia and primarily focuses on jurisdictions that make apostasy, or renouncing one’s religion, a capital offense. However, several countries that have adopted broadly-defined laws on blasphemy and insult to religion, which could potentially be used to prosecute persons for apostasy, have also been included, as well as one country that expressly prohibits extrajudicial punishment for allegations of apostasy.

  • Country: 
    United Kingdom (UK)
    News Date: 
    02/10/2019
    Summary: 

    Sharia Watch: Please note this from the - "Apostasy results, firstly, in the

  • Country: 
    Indonesia
    News Date: 
    22/09/2019
    Summary: 

    “Couples flogged for public affection in Indonesia’s Aceh,” , September 19, 2019 (thanks to ):

    A trio of canoodling couples were publicly flogged in Indonesia’s Aceh province on Thursday, charged with breaking local Islamic law that outlaws public displays of affection.

  • Country: 
    Saudi Arabia
    News Date: 
    16/09/2019
    Summary: 

    Crucifixion is one of the punishments specified by verse 5:33 for "causing mischief/corruption in the land". The 'crime' of 'causing mischief/corruption in the land' is one of the exceptions that Muslim spokesmen ALWAYS omit when misquoting verse 5:32 after jihad attacks. See below: 

  • Pakistan Blasphemy Law
    Summary: 

    Abstract:



    This article discusses blasphemy law of Pakistan and deliberates on international criticism and pressure on Pakistan to change death penalty for crime under section 295-C of PPC. It highlights the reasons why even the most liberal Pakistani governments have not been able to bring any reforms in this law let alone change the law. The article further focuses on section 295-C of Pakistan Penal Code on defamation of Prophet Mohammad (PBUH) and sees how it is different from other offences relating to religion mentioned in part XV of Pakistan’s Penal Code. This research carries out an in depth study of the Qur’anic verses and the incidents which took place during the life time of Prophet Mohammad (pbuh) as recorded in classical Islamic literature, of offending, ridiculing or disobeying the Prophet of Islam. Finally capital punishment under Islamic law and under laws of United States is discussed. Islamic legal philosophy on capital punishment and mannerism in which Islamic legal system deters the misuse of law in capital crimes is part of this research. The article also suggests that the constitutional status of a country has a very important role to play in its legislation.

    ---

    To conclude it is stated that section 295-C of Pakistan Penal Code is in line with the verses of Quran and Prophetic traditions. Since the Constitution of Pakistan states that laws should not be repugnant to injunctions of Islam therefore derogating Prophet Muhammad’s name or personality is considered as a capital crime under section 295-C.

     

  • Country: 
    Netherlands (the)
    News Date: 
    11/09/2019
    Summary: 

    Children at Salafist mosque schools in the Netherlands are taught Sharia law, and are taught the death penalty is appropriate for people with a different religion or belief system, according to a study by Nieuwsuur and NRC. The report has parliamentarians concerned.

  • Summary: 

    This is a classic manual of fiqh rulings based on Shafi"i School of jurisprudence and includes original Arabic texts and translations from classic works of prominent Muslim scholars such as al Ghazali, al Nawawi, al Qurtubi, al Dhahabi and others.


    Admin: This manual has been endorsed by Cairo's al-Azhar university as "conforming to the practice and faith of orthodox Sunni Islam". It substantiates the that outlines some of the ways in which sharia is incompatible with democracy and human rights in that it:

     

    • Sanctions death for apostasy
    • Death by stoning for adultery and sodomy
    • Discrimination against non-Muslims
    • Jihad  against non-Muslims to establish Islam
    • In some cases, forced conversion to Islam
    • Discrimination against non-Muslims
    • Amputation of limbs
    • It makes clear that penalties like amputation and stoning are also applicable to non-Muslims.

    This resolution by the Council of Europe spells out precisely how sharia is incompatible with human rights and democracy:


    The Assembly recalls that the European Court of Human Rights has already stated in Refah Partisi (The Welfare Party) and others v. Turkey that the institution of Sharia law and a theocratic regime are incompatible with the requirements of a democratic society. The Assembly fully agrees that Sharia rules on, for example, divorce and inheritance proceedings are clearly incompatible with the Convention, in particular its Article 14, which prohibits discrimination on grounds such as sex or religion, and Article 5 of Protocol No. 7 to the Convention (ETS No. 117), which establishes equality between marital partners. Sharia law is also in contradiction with other provisions of the Convention and its additional protocols, including Article 2 (right to life), Article 3 (prohibition of torture or inhuman or degrading treatment), Article 6 (right to a fair trial), Article 8 (right to respect for private and family life), Article 9 (freedom of thought, conscience and religion), Article 10 (freedom of expression), Article 12 (right to marry), Article 1 of the Protocol to the Convention (ETS No. 9) (protection of property) and Protocols Nos. 6 (ETS No. 114) and 13 (ETS No. 187) abolishing the death penalty.

  • Country: 
    Yemen
    News Date: 
    03/06/2019
    Summary: 

    Three paedophiles were publicly shot then hanged from a crane in Yemen  as punishment for raping and killing a ten-year-old boy. Yemen, south of Saudi Arabia, is one of the world’s top executors with capital punishment for violent crimes including murder, rape, and terrorism. The death penalty can also theoretically be used in cases of Islamic or ‘Hudud’ offences under Sharia law such as adultery, sexual misconduct, sodomy, prostitution, blasphemy and apostasy. All sentences are carried out by shooting although stoning, hanging, and beheading are also permitted within the Yemeni penal code.

  • Country: 
    Iran (Islamic Republic of)
    News Date: 
    11/03/2019
    Summary: 

    After two trials described by Amnesty International as “grossly unfair,” Iranian human rights lawyer Nasrin Sotoudeh has been sentenced to a total of 38 years in prison and 148 lashes.

  • Country: 
    Brunei Darussalam
    News Date: 
    11/05/2019
    Summary: 

    When the Sultan of Brunei last week announced a moratorium on the much-condemned death penalty for gay sex, some hailed the move as a major advance. But inside the tiny South-East Asian nation, members of the LGBT community says there is little reason to celebrate - and much still to fear. In an interview with the Telegraph, one gay man, who asked to be identified only as 'M', warned that the apparent turnaround would only be temporary.

  • Country: 
    Nigeria
    News Date: 
    09/05/2019
    Summary: 

    In a prison in a village in Nigeria, “the condemned convicts we have are mostly coming from Sharia Courts. These and other related cases like amputation of hand or leg have been in jail for over 10 years without knowing their fate. Their hands are not cut off, their legs are not cut off, they don’t know their fate.”

  • Country: 
    Brunei Darussalam
    News Date: 
    29/03/2019
    Summary: 

    Adultery and gay sex will be punishable by stoning to death and the limbs of convicted thieves will be amputated under a new law set to come into effect from next week in the tiny southeast Asian kingdom of Brunei. A new strict Sharia penal code is to be enforced from next Wednesday defying heavy criticism that has kept the brutal provisions on hold for the last four years. 

  • This shocking video shows Islamic scholars teaching young British children in a Muslim faith school in the UK.


    The woman first illustrates what happens when a person decides to leave Islam.“What are we going to do?” asks the woman in broken English. “We kill him. Kill.”


    “The ones who reject Islam?” a British student asks.


  • Summary: 

    This shocking video shows Islamic scholars teaching young British children in a Muslim faith school in the UK.


    The woman first illustrates what happens when a person decides to leave Islam.“What are we going to do?” asks the woman in broken English. “We kill him. Kill.”


    “The ones who reject Islam?” a British student asks.


  • Country: 
    Abu Dhabi
    News Date: 
    29/07/2009
    Summary: 

    A Saudi Arabian woman charged with having an affair retracted her guilty plea yesterday after the judge warned that under Islamic law, she would be sentenced to death by stoning. The woman, RM, was charged with adultery and justification of sin - claiming that a sin is acceptable - in a case brought by her father at Abu Dhabi's Criminal Court of First Instance. Her co-defendant, an Emirati man, SM, faces the same charges, but he was not in court.

  • Country: 
    United Arab Emirates (the)
    News Date: 
    12/06/2006
    Summary: 

    A foreign national in the Emirate of Fujairah has been sentenced to death by stoning by a Shari'a (Islamic) court. Shahin 'Abdul Rahman, whose nationality is not known to Amnesty International, received the sentence on 10 June 2006 for committing adultery after he was allegedly found naked in bed with Asma Bikham Bijam, a domestic worker.

  • Country: 
    United Kingdom (UK)
    News Date: 
    19/11/2009
    Summary: 

    Sadly, the turn out in Hyde Park will probably be quite small. This is odd. Most liberals and leftwingers would protest loud and strong if these persecutions were perpetrated by a western regime or by Christian fundamentalists. But they get squeamish when it comes to challenging human rights abuses committed in the name of Islam. They fear being denouned as Islamophobic.

  • Country: 
    Indonesia
    News Date: 
    29/10/2018
    Summary: 
    • The 21-year-old was forced to kneel and lashed in front of crowds before being hauled off the platform
    • Her boyfriend was also whipped with the bamboo stick as he stood before fellow citizens of Banda Aceh 
    • The city is in Aceh, which is the sole province where Islamic law is fully enforced
    • Indonesia has the world's largest Muslim population with around 225 million believers

  • Country: 
    Saudi Arabia
    News Date: 
    27/11/2015
    Summary: 

    The married 45-year-old was working as a maid in Riyadh and was convicted of adultry in August but her partner was given a lesser punishment

  • Summary: 

    On Sunday, January 2, 2011, Sheikh Yusuf Al-Qaradawi, president of the International Union for Muslim Scholars (IUMS), was interviewed by Al Jazeera channel program Ash-Shari`ah wa Al-Hayah (Shari`ah and Life). The interview’s main theme was “Hudud in Contemporary Fiqh.”

    From time to time, the question of hudud (fixed penalties in the Islamic Shari`ah) and their application in the modern world raises debates in Muslim and non-Muslim societies. While mainstream Muslims regard the right application of hududas an integral part of Shari`ah, others see it as a controversial issue that should be open to ijtihad (personal reasoning) on the part of contemporary scholars.

    Sheikh Qaradawi, who is known for his vast and deep knowledge of Shari`ah and its essential objectives, wonderfully and distinctively dealt with this thorny topic in his recent interview on Al Jazeera. In the following lines, the main points discussed during the interview are reviewed.

  • Author(s):

    Summary: 

    Islam is more than a religion, it encompasses faith, culture, law and the social order. Islam proposes a society of righteousness and justice. Criminal behaviour is not tolerated in the Islamic order of society. Criminal behaviour is breach of God’s sovereignty, hence stiffer penalties are prescribed. This paper examines hudud punishments in Islamic penal system, and agitates for the reformation of Islamic criminal jurisprudence. While it is reasonable to punish offenders, and violators of normative principles, it is the opinion of this paper that punishments that are prescribed in municipal penal code should at least conform to international criminal jurisprudence.

    ...

    Criminal behaviour and actions are broadly divided into three categories in Islamic criminal jurisprudence. Hudud offenses are crimes against God whose punishment is clearly stipulated in the Quran and the Sunna. Quesas are physical assault and murder that are punishable through retaliation. The victim or the surviving heirs may decide to waive the punishment, and demand compensation (blood money or diyya). The victim may also decide to pardon the offender. Ta’zir punishments are not prescribed in the Quran or Sunna, and are executed under the discretionary powers of the judge. Capital offences in Islamic criminal justice system are called hudud (the plural for hadd) , meaning “restraint” or prohibition. These are offences that are specified in the Quran and Sunna. Hudud crimes are often seen as criminal behavior against Allah, or public justice. Islamic courts do not have any discretionary power in the execution of hudud penalties. Once a prima facie case is established with evidences, and the conditions for applying the punishments are fulfilled, the Islamic court is divested of discretionary powers.

  • Country: 
    United Kingdom (UK)
    News Date: 
    08/10/2018
    Summary: 

    Amazon has agreed to fund a hardline British charity whose leading ideologue supports child marriage, female genital mutilation and stoning people to death for adultery. Under its charitable programme, the internet giant will make donations to the London-based group whenever its supporters buy products. The Muslim Research and Development Foundation (MRDF) has been described by the government’s counter-extremism commissioner, Sara Khan, as “the main Salafist organisation in the UK”.

  • Summary: 

    Equally important is that the punishments which cause the greatest outcry -- flogging, stoning, etc -- come under the hudud laws, which are implemented in Saudi Arabia and were introduced by General Zia ul-Haq in Pakistan in 1979, but are the exception, not the rule, in most Muslim countries.

    They are, in fact, an embarrassment to the many Muslims who consider them barbaric. So when Ramadan called for a  on corporal punishment, stoning and the death penalty in the Islamic world in 2005, some non-Muslims criticised him for not going further. Why didn't he say the hudud laws should just be discarded or repealed?

    He explained this by pointing out that most of the authorities "are of the opinion that these penalties are on the whole Islamic [because of textual references] but that the conditions under which they should be implemented are nearly impossible to re-establish. These penalties, therefore, are 'almost never applicable'." He later declared that "Islam is being used to degrade and subjugate women and men in certain Muslim-majority societies in the midst of collusive silence and chaotic judicial opinions on the ground". The present-day use of hudud, therefore, is clearly a misuse of sharia.

    This article discusses the conditions required:

    Possibility of Applying Hudud Today

    It is supposed that when the elements of a crime are complete, hudud should be applied. However, if these elements are not present, then ta`zeer should be applied. Ta`zeer is to be applied by the authority of the imam or judge. Applying hudud is the right of the state. Consequently, no group in any place has the right to apply hudud to a group of people away from the authority of the state.

    Hudud may be suspended until there is an Islamic life comprehensively established, with all conditions guaranteed. If these conditions are met in a certain case, hudud must be applied.

  • Country: 
    Kenya
    News Date: 
    27/09/2018
    Summary: 

    An Islamist mob stoned three Christians to death in western Kenya this week in apparent retaliation for the recent killing of three suspected al Shabaab militants.

  • Summary: 

    Stoning, a form of execution where a group throws stones at a person until they are dead, still happens in parts of the Muslim world, mostly as a punishment for adultery. Most victims are women. Stoning, which is not mentioned in the Koran, violates international law. Below is a list of countries where stoning is legal and/or practised.

  • Country: 
    United Arab Emirates (the)
    News Date: 
    14/04/2007
    Summary: 

    A Pakistani man faces death by stoning in the United Arab Emirates for committing adultery with four of his stepdaughters, a local daily reported.

  • Country: 
    Nigeria
    News Date: 
    18/03/2011
    Summary: 

    In October 2001, an Islamic court found Hussaini guilty of adultery and under sharia, or Islamic law, sentenced her to be stoned to death while buried up to her waist in sand. In interviews with Western journalists in recent days, some Muslim clerics in the region have carefully explained that Hussaini would be buried in a pit to prevent her escape and that the size of the stones could be a big as an adult fist.

  • Country: 
    Iran (Islamic Republic of)
    News Date: 
    13/01/2009
    Summary: 

    Two men convicted of adultery have been stoned to death in Iran, a rare punishment that the Iranian judiciary says it is trying to have scrapped.

  • Country: 
    Malaysia
    News Date: 
    03/09/2018
    Summary: 

    Two Malaysian Muslim women convicted under Islamic laws of attempting to have sexual relations were caned Monday in a rare public whipping that was slammed by rights activists as a grave miscarriage of justice. Lawyers and activists said the women, aged 22 and 32, were seated on stools facing the judges and given six strokes from a light rattan cane on their backs by female prison officers. More than 100 people witnessed the caning in a Shariah courtroom in northeast Terengganu state, they said.

  • Country: 
    Somalia
    News Date: 
    04/11/2008
    Summary: 

    A young woman recently stoned to death in Somalia first pleaded for her life, a witness has told the BBC. "Don't kill me, don't kill me," she said, according to the man who wanted to remain anonymous. A few minutes later, more than 50 men threw stones. Human rights group Amnesty International says the victim was a 13-year-old girl who had been raped.

  • Summary: 

    From very early on, Sharia judges utilized a “near endless list of ambiguities” that functioned as an “escape hatch” from corporal punishment. Even in the few Muslim majority nations where Hudud sentences are still applied (e.g., Nigeria, Sudan, Iran, and Saudi Arabia), they are infrequently carried out:

    Between 1981 and 1992, there were four executions by stoning in Saudi Arabia and forty-five amputations for theft. In a one-year sample (1982-83), out of 4,925 convictions for theft, only two hands were cut off. The rest of the guilty were punished by taʿzīr [discretionary sentencing applicable to lesser crimes]. In the same time period, out of 659 convictions for Hudud-level sexual crimes, no one was stoned. Many death sentences are the result of political punishments, not the Hudud. In Nigeria’s northern states, all of which have adopted Shariah-based legal codes, a few amputations for theft have taken place. There have been at least two sentences to death for adultery, but in all cases so far ambiguities were found to release the guilty party.

    Admin: Four executions by stoning and 45 amputations in a decade seems to be an acceptable price to pay for liberals to try and exculpate sharia. This article also erroneously implies sharia only appiies to Muslims when the manual of sharia clearly states that, with a few exceptions, it does apply to non-Muslims. The article also ignore the many people slaughtered by sharia vigilantes for 'blasphemy', insulting Islam etc.

  • Country: 
    Bangladesh
    News Date: 
    29/03/2011
    Summary: 

    Hena Akhter's last words to her mother proclaimed her innocence. But it was too late to save the 14-year-old girl. Her fellow villagers in Bangladesh's Shariatpur district had already passed harsh judgment on her. Guilty, they said, of having an affair with a married man. The imam from the local mosque ordered the fatwa, or religious ruling, and the punishment: 101 lashes delivered swiftly, deliberately in public.

    Hena dropped after 70.

  • Country: 
    Canada
    News Date: 
    01/05/2018
    Summary: 

    Muslim children in a mosque in Canada practicing beheading of infidels In a shocking video which went viral on social media. Canada may be the first Western country to adopt blasphemy law and to criminalize criticism of Islam. Justin Trudeau is most vocal Western leaders against Islamophobia which means fear of Islam. The Canadian prime minister wants to ban not only criticism of Islam but to persecute people who are afraid of Islam. Freedom of expression is a fundamental right in a democratic state and should be protected in Canada. Freedom of speech should not be limited by people's feeli

  • Country: 
    Pakistan
    News Date: 
    26/04/2018
    Summary: 

     Normally, people kill girls if they are born out of wedlock as this is consider a stigma. However if the baby is a boy the family try to protect him. “We have seen so many horrible incidents. One such incident which still I remember despite passage of more than a decade is the stoning of a new born baby who was found outside mosque”, says Mr. Kazmi. “A few people found a baby at the door step of a mosque in Karachi and they handed the baby over to the prayer leader. The cleric decried that this is an illegitimate baby therefore he should be stoned.

  • Country: 
    Indonesia
    News Date: 
    05/03/2018
    Summary: 

    Two Indonesian Christians were publicly  last week after violating the country’s increasing adoption of Sharia Law. The two men, Dahlan Silitonga, 61 and Tjia Nyuk Hwa, 45, received six and seven beatings with a rattan stick from a man wearing a robe and headscarf. Around 300 spectators, including groups of tourists from Malaysia, reportedly took photos as the whipping took place outside a mosque in the provincia

  • Summary: 

    “It’s culture, not religion” is a phrase often used to explain away problematic practices common in Muslim countries and communities. Sharia is Islamic law that has influenced societies with different languages, cultures, histories, and interpretations of Islam. In the face of a worrisome incident, many Muslims believe that Islam has been misinterpreted, while others believe it agreeable to Islamic teachings. Is it accurate to say that the negative aspects of Sharia are not based on Islamic teachings, that the negative influences are primarily external to religion?

    To answer this truthfully, one must go to the Islamic religious texts. Sharia is derived primarily from the Quran and hadith. The Quran is the holy book of Islam, believed to be the literal word of God. It is believed to have passed verbally from the angel Jibril (Gabriel) to Muhammad, the prophet of Islam, who then relayed it to his followers over the course of two decades. It is the ultimate authority in Islam, traditionally believed to be a guidance for all times. A hadith is a report that describes the actions of Muhammad and his followers. They are important in understanding the Quran as they supplement many of its verses, and have played an essential role in the development of Islamic jurisprudence. The hadith are second only to the Quran.

    The importance of hadith is in its practical application. For example, the Quran instructs Muslims to pray, but does not clearly specify how or how often. The Hadith gives instruction on not only how to pray, but clarifies that Muslims must pray five times a day. Individual hadith are classified as (1) sahih (“authentic”), which is the highest classification, (2) hasan (“good”) or (3) da’if (“weak”). The classifications are based on how credible the hadith collectors found the chain of narration, tracing the chain to the originator of the content of the report. Unless otherwise stated, all of the hadith we use for this article are sahih hadith. Still, one should spend a moment deliberating that all of the hadith, including those classified as weak, are from Muslim sources, favored towards Islam. Finally, this article also looks at tafsir (the exegesis of the Quran) to provide more context to certain verses.

    We will look at verses from the Quran and hadith on four subject areas: women’s testimony, torture, slavery, and jizya, the special tax required from non-Muslims. This article is by no means a comprehensive list of controversial topics related to Islam, but it is meant to provide a basis of understanding some influential writings in authoritative Islamic sources regarding these topics.

  • Country: 
    Indonesia
    News Date: 
    14/07/2017
    Summary: 

    In an interview with the local media, Vice Governor Nova Iriansyah said that because of the international attention on public whippings: “We will minimalize press coverage and conduct it inside prisons. Right now it’s in front of the mosque, right after Friday prayers.”

  • Country: 
    Indonesia
    News Date: 
    20/03/2017
    Summary: 

    A WOMAN was caned during a public flogging by a "Sharia law enforcer"- for spending time with a man who was not her husband.

  • Country: 
    Indonesia
    News Date: 
    10/02/2017
    Summary: 

    The poor woman can be heard screaming in agony as she is beaten by a masked man while a cheering crowd watch on. A large number of men and women can be seen watching on while filming the despicable act on their phones. The masked man teases the crowd by cruelly moving the wooden cane close to his victim’s back, as the audience whoop and cheer.

  • Country: 
    Nigeria
    News Date: 
    24/03/2004
    Summary: 

    A Nigerian Islamic sharia court on Wednesday postponed for almost a month the appeal of a young couple who were sentenced to be stoned to death.

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