You are here

Muhammad

Summary:


The Sirat Rasul (biography of Muhammad) as translated by A. Guillaume can be found here: https://archive.org/details/TheLifeOfMohammedGuillaume

This study is quite heavy reading but gives an excellent insight into both Muhammad and the nature of Islam: http://www.exmuslim.org/Unmasking%20Muhammad_Sujit%20Das.pdf

From History of Shariah:

It is generally accepted among Muslims not only that the Prophet was a perfect human being and thus worthy of emulation, but also that he enjoyed divine inspiration and thus could make no error in matters of religion or shariah law.

https://www.islamawareness.net/Shariah/sh_article005.html

Muhammad: “I have been made victorious with terror.” The Hadith, collected by Bukhari(4.52.220): 

Allah's Apostle said, "I have been sent with the shortest expressions bearing the widest meanings, and I have been made victorious with terror (cast in the hearts of the enemy), and while I was sleeping, the keys of the treasures of the world were brought to me and put in my hand." Abu Huraira added: Allah's Apostle has left the world and now you, people, are bringing out those treasures (i.e. the Prophet did not benefit by them). 

http://www.exmuslim.org/i-have-been-made-victorious-by-terror.html

How best to establish, for instance, that the actions of jihadis in beheading their foes are indeed contrary to Islam? Fighters for the Islamic State might well point out that the Qur’an describes angels decapitating unbelievers with the aim of spreading terror; that the first Muslims are described as harvesting heads on the battlefield of Badr; that Muhammad himself is said to have owned a sword that can be translated as ‘Cleaver of Vertebrae’. It is not enough, within such a context, merely to insist that Islam is a religion of peace, and leave it at that. Muslim scholars have an urgent responsibility to demonstrate in the most painstaking detail exactly where and why the jihadis are wrong.

https://www.theosthinktank.co.uk/comment/2014/09/28/how-do-we-prevent-radicalisation-by-tom-holland

Muhammad bought, sold, and captured slaves.

He bought slaves: “Jabir (Allah be pleased with him) reported: There came a slave and pledged allegiance to Allah’s Apostle (may peace be upon him) on migration; he (the Holy Prophet) did not know that he was a slave. Then there came his master and demanded him back, whereupon Allah’s Apostle (may peace be upon him) said: Sell him to me. And he bought him for two black slaves, and he did not afterwards take allegiance from anyone until he had asked him whether he was a slave (or a free man).” (Muslim 3901).

 “Narrated Anas bin Malik: Allah’s Apostle was on a journey and he had a black slave called Anjasha, and he was driving the camels (very fast, and there were women riding on those camels). Allah’s Apostle said, ‘Waihaka (May Allah be merciful to you), O Anjasha! Drive slowly (the camels) with the glass vessels (women)!’” (Bukhari 8.73.182).

He also ordered or supported over 40 separate instances of killing, some for mocking him (Charlie Hebdo!):

https://wikiislam.net/wiki/List_of_Killings_Ordered_or_Supported_by_Muhammad

The example of Muhammad found in his words and deeds in the Sunna are very important because the Quran refers to Muhammad in glowing terms 91 times and exhorts people to belive in him and follow him:

eg

Quran 4:69 - And whoever obeys Allah and the Messenger - those will be with the ones upon whom Allah has bestowed favor of the prophets, the steadfast affirmers of truth, the martyrs and the righteous. And excellent are those as companions.

Quran 48:9 - That you [people] may believe in Allah and His Messenger and honor him and respect the Prophet and exalt Allah morning and afternoon.

However, the Hadiths show that Muhammad used torture and assassination to help build Islam:

http://sahih-bukhari.com/Pages/Bukhari_8_82.php

http://www.shariawatch.org.uk/?q=content/muhammads-use-torture

http://www.shariawatch.org.uk/?q=content/muhammads-assassins-and-intimidation-islam

http://wikiislam.github.io/wiki/List_of_Killings_Ordered_or_Supported_by_Muhammad.html#List_of_Killings

Sura 9 (the penutlimate one to be revealed) is viewed by some as Muhammad's Muhammad's Last Will and Testament, a view expanded on here: http://www.citizenwarrior.com/2010/09/qurans-last-word-on-non-muslims.html

As a final note, some academics have raised questions as to whether Muhammad even existed.

Summary: 

The West’s movement towards the truth is remarkably slow. We drag ourselves towards it painfully, inch by inch, after each bloody Islamist assault.

In France, Britain, Germany, America and nearly every other country in the world it remains government policy to say that any and all attacks carried out in the name of Mohammed have ‘nothing to do with Islam’. It was said by George W. Bush after 9/11, Tony Blair after 7/7 and Tony Abbott after the Sydney attack last month. It is what David Cameron said after two British extremists cut off the head of Drummer Lee Rigby in London, when ‘Jihadi John’ cut off the head of aid worker Alan Henning in the ‘Islamic State’ and when Islamic extremists attacked a Kenyan mall, separated the Muslims from the Christians and shot the latter in the head. And, of course, it is what President François Hollande said after the massacre of journalists and Jews in Paris last week.

...

There may be some positive things to be said about Mohammed, but I thought this was pushing things too far and mentioned just one occasion when Mohammed didn’t welcome a critic. Asma bint Marwan was a female poetess who mocked the ‘Prophet’ and who, as a result, Mohammed had killed. It is in the texts. It is not a problem for me. But I can understand why it is a problem for decent Muslims. The moment I said this, my Muslim colleague went berserk. How dare I say this? I replied that it was in the Hadith and had a respectable chain of transmission (an important debate). He said it was a fabrication which he would not allow to stand. The upshot was that he refused to continue unless all mention of this was wiped from the recording. The BBC team agreed and I was left trying to find another way to express the same point.

Country: 
Netherlands (the)
News Date: 
10/07/2018
Summary: 

The leader of a Pakistani Islamist group vowed to 'wipe Holland off the face of the earth' with a nuclear attack in response to a Prophet Muhammad cartoon competition being held in the country.

Author(s):

Summary: 

Islam stands or falls on the credibility of Muhammad on which we do not have single evidence but unfathomable doubts because his conduct was immoral. But he successfully twisted the sense of morality of his followers, distorted their sense of ‘Humanness’ and linked “doing good” and “a service to God” to all ungodly things. Briefly, he had given a sacred aura to crime and terrorism.

Author(s):

Summary: 

The Life of Mohammed: The Sira is a condensed version of the biography of Mohammed, a man who became the first ruler of a united Arabia and laid the foundation for the empire of Islam. The Sira is not just a biography but it is also a sacred Islamic text of how devout Muslims should conduct their life. 

Mohammed's life is an epic story. He was an orphan who rose from poverty to become the first ruler of all of Arabia. He created a new religion, new methods of war, and a new political system, including a legal code, the Sharia. 

Mohammed was the world's greatest warrior. Today no one wages war in the name of Caesar, Alexander the Great, Napoleon, or any other military leader. However, every year many people die because of Mohammed. After 1400 years, Islam is still a powerful force in our world. Mohammed said that one day all of the world would live under his rule of law, the Sharia. 

To understand Islam, you must know the life of Mohammed. The Koran commands that every Muslim is to live a life identical to his. The religion of Islam is about worshiping Allah exactly as Mohammed did. 

The Life of Mohammed: The Sira is a unique book that provides a concise taste of Islam and is completely authoritative. The reference system allows you to verify all information in the source texts.

Summary: 

See also: 

Note: The Hadith reference links have been changed to a new source because UCL have removed their hadith collection from public access.

As a side note, this statement is a third party report. We do not have the exact words of Muhammad to evaluate them at this point. Yet there is a narration in Sunan Abu Dawud where Muhammad is directly quoted:

Narrated Rabah ibn Rabi':
When we were with the Apostle of Allah (peace_be_upon_him) on an expedition, he saw some people collected together over something and sent a man and said: See, what are these people collected around? He then came and said: They are round a woman who has been killed. He said: This is not one with whom fighting should have taken place. Khalid ibn al-Walid was in charge of the van; so he sent a man and said: Tell Khalid not to kill a woman or a hired servant. (Sunan Abu Dawud, Book 14, )

HOWEVER, there are certain other narrations that permit the killing of women and children, specifically during Muslim raids where they attack unsuspecting victims at night:

Narrated As-Sab bin Jaththama:
The Prophet passed by me at a place called Al-Abwa or Waddan, and was asked whether it was permissible to attack the pagan warriors at night with the probability of exposing their women and children to danger. The Prophet replied, "They (i.e. women and children) are from them (i.e. pagans)." I also heard the Prophet saying, "The institution of Hima is invalid except for Allah and His Apostle." (Sahih Al-Bukhari, Volume 4, Book 52, )

I.e., they are all the same—both the women and children are nothing more than pagans! The above narration is repeated in several, different hadith collections:

Chapter 9: PERMISSIBILITY OF KILLING WOMEN AND CHILDREN IN THE NIGHT RAIDS, PROVIDED IT IS NOT DELIBERATE

It is reported on the authority of Sa'b b. Jaththama that the Prophet of Allah (may peace be upon him), when asked about the women and children of the polytheists being killed during the night raid, said: They are from them. (Sahih Muslim, Book 019,)

Keep in mind that the subheading is not part of the narration, it is added by the collector of the hadiths. In other words, the statement regarding the killing of women and children being permissible as long as it isn’t deliberate is not part of the narration. The hadiths do not explicitly say this, and yet the compiler assumed that this was the clear implication and meaning of these narrations.

It is narrated by Sa'b b. Jaththama that he said (to the Holy Prophet): Messenger of Allah, we kill the children of the polytheists during the night raids. He said: They are from them. (Sahih Muslim, Book 019, )

Sa'b b. Jaththama has narrated that the Prophet (may peace be upon him) asked: What about the children of polytheists killed by the cavalry during the night raid? He said: They are from them. (Sahih Muslim, Book 019,)

...

Furthermore, Islamic sources provide many examples where Muslims deliberately and brutally killed women and children. Noted Islamic commentator and historian Al-Tabari mentioned one:

In this year a raiding party led by Zayd b. Harithah set out against Umm Qirfah in the month of Ramadan. During it, Umm Qirfah (Fatimah bt. Rabi‘ah b. Badr) suffered a cruel death. He tied her legs with rope and then tied her between two camels until they split her in two. She was a very old woman.

Her story is as follows. According to Ibn Humayd – Salamah – Ibn Ishaq – ‘Abdallah b. Abi Bakr, who said: The Messenger of God sent Zayd b. Harithah to Wadi al-Qura, where he encountered the Banu Fazarah. Some of his companions were killed there, and Zayd was carried away wounded from among the slain. One of those killed was Ward b. ‘Amr, one of the Banu Sa‘d b. Hudhaym: he was killed by one of the Banu Badr [b. Fazarah]. When Zayd returned, he vowed that no washing [to cleanse him] from impurity should touch his head until he had raided the Fazarah. After he recovered from his wounds, the Messenger of God sent him with an army against the Banu Fazarah. He met them in Wadi al-Qura and inflicted causalities on them. Qays b. al-Musahhar al-Ya‘muri killed Mas‘adah b. Hakamah b. Malik b. Badr and took Umm Qirfah prisoner. (Her name was Fatimah bt. Rabi‘ah b. Badr. She was married to Malik b. Hudhayfah b. Badr. She was a very old woman.) He also took one of Umm Qirfah’ daughters and ‘Abdallah b. Mas‘adah prisoner. Zayd b. Harithah ordered Qays to kill Umm Qirfah, and he killed her cruelly. He tied each of her legs with a rope and tied the ropes to two camels, and they split her in two. Then they brought Umm Qirfah’s daughter and ‘Abdallah b. Mas‘adah to the Messenger of God. Umm Qirfah’s daughter belonged to Salamah b. ‘Amr b. al-Akwa‘, who had taken her - she was a member of a distinguished family among her people: the Arabs used to say, "Had you been more powerful than Umm Qirfah, you could have done no more." The Messenger of God asked Salamah for her, and Salamah gave her to him. He then gave her to his maternal uncle, Hazn b. Abi Wahb and she bore him ‘Abd al-Rahman b. Hazn. (The History of Al-Tabari: The Victory of Islam, translated by Michael Fishbein [State University of New York Press (SUNY), Albany 1997], Volume VIII, pp. 95-97)

Al-Tabari also mentioned that Muhammad had the young boys of the Jewish tribe of Banu Qurayzah beheaded:

The Messenger of God had commanded that all of them who had reached puberty should be killed. (The History of Al-Tabari, Volume VIII, p. 38)

...

Not only were the young boys of the tribe beheaded, but the Muslims also beheaded one of their women:

According to Ibn Ishaq, the conquest of the Banu Qurayzah took place in the month of Dhu al-Qa‘dah or in the beginning of Dhu al-Hijjah. Al-Waqidi, however, said that the Messenger of God attacked them a few days before the end of Dhu al-Qa‘dah. He asserted that the Messenger of God commanded that furrows should be dug in the ground for the Banu Qurayzah. Then he sat down, and ‘Ali and al-Zubayr began cutting off their heads in his presence. He asserts that the woman whom the Prophet killed that day was named Bunanah, the wife of al-Hakam al-Qurazi- it was she who had killed Khallad b. Suwayd by throwing a milestone on him. The Messenger of God called for her and beheaded her in retaliation for Khallad b. Suwayd. (The History of Al-Tabari, Volume VIII, pp. 40-41)

Narrated Aisha, Ummul Mu'minin:
No woman of Banu Qurayzah was killed except one. She was with me, talking and laughing on her back and belly (extremely), while the Apostle of Allah (peace_be_upon_him) was killing her people with the swords. Suddenly a man called her name: Where is so-and-so? She said: I. I asked: What is the matter with you? She said: I did a new act. She said: The man took her and beheaded her. She said: I will not forget that she was laughing extremely although she knew that she would be killed. (Sunan Abu Dawud, Book 15,)

It doesn’t stop here. When Muhammad conquered Mecca he ordered the murder of a couple of singers solely because they had made fun of him in song!

Also among them was ‘Abdallah b. Khatal, a member of the Banu Taym b. Ghalib. The Messenger of God ordered that he should be killed only for the following reason: He was a Muslim, and the Messenger of God sent him to collect alms, sending with him one of the Ansar. With him went a mawla of his, also a Muslim, to serve him. He halted at a resting place and commanded the mawla to slaughter him a goat and make him a meal; then he went to sleep. When he woke up, the mawla had done nothing for him; so he attacked him and killed him. He had two singing girls, Fartana and another with her. The two used to sing satire about the Messenger of God; so the latter commanded that the two of them should be killed along with him…

Also among them were ‘Ikrimah b. Abi Jahl and Sarah, a mawla of one of the sons of ‘Abd al-Muttalib. She was one of those who used to molest the Messenger of God in Mecca…

Summary: 

What is authentic Islam? This is a question that Muslims may disagree about too, but it certainly is valid to consider the life of Muhammad, the founder of Islam. In fact, any definition of Islam that excludes Muhammad is false. The earliest biography (sirat) of Muhammad's life is the work of Ibn Ishaq (85-151 A.H.) who was born in Medina. In this we learn how Muhammad dealt with those who opposed him. Here are two examples.

SALIM B. `UMAYR'S EXPEDITION TO KILL ABU `AFAK

Abu `Afak was one of B. (tribe) `Amr b. `Auf of the B. `Ubayda clan. He showed his disaffection when the apostle killed al-Harith b. Samit and said:

Long have I lived but never have I seen
An assembly or collection of people
More faithful to their undertaking
And their allies when called upon
Than the sons of Qayla when they assembled,
Men who overthrew mountains and never submitted.
A rider who came to them split them in two (saying)
"Permitted", "Forbidden" of all sorts of things.
Had you believed in glory or kingship
You would have followed Tubba`.

The apostle said, "Who will deal with this rascal for me?" Whereupon Salim b. `Umayr, brother of B. `Amr b. `Auf one of the "weepers", went forth and killed him. Umama b. Muzayriya said concerning that:

You gave the lie to God's religion and the man Ahmad!
By him who was your father, evil is the son he produced!
hanif gave you a thrust in the night saying
"Take that Abu `Afak in spite of your age!"
Though I knew whether it was man or jinn
Who slew you in the dead of night (I would say naught)

(Ibn Ishaq, Sirat Rasul Allah, translated as, The Life of Muhammad, (tr. A. Guillaume), Karachi: Oxford University Press, 1998, p. 675.)

Here we read of public opposition to Muhammad. Muhammad had killed a leading person in a particularly tribe. Abu `Afak, was a member of this tribe, and an old man, he spoke out against Muhammad and encouraged his tribe to resist him. When his actions were brought to Muhammad's attention Muhammad's response was simple, he said, "Who will deal with this rascal for me?" Salim b. `Umayr fulfilled Muhammad's wishes by killing Abu `Afak.

Ibn Ishaq's account continues with another example:

`UMAYR B. `ADIY'S JOURNEY TO KILL `ASMA D. MARWAN

She was of B. Umayya b. Zayd. When Abu `Afak had been killed she displayed disaffection. `Abdullah b. al-Harith b. al-Fudayl from his father said that she was married to a man of B. Khatma called Yazid b. Zayd. Blaming Islam and its followers she said:

I despise B. Malik and al-Nabit
And `Auf and B. al-Khazraj.
You obey a stranger who is none of yours,
One not of Murad or Madhhij.
Do you expect good from him after the killing of your chiefs
Like a hungry man waiting for a cook's broth?
Is there no man of pride who would attack him by surprise
And cut off the hopes of those who expect aught from him?

Hassan b. Thabit answered her:

Banu Wa'il and B. Waqif and Khatma
Are inferior to B. al-Khazraj.
When she called for folly woe to her in her weeping,
For death is coming.
She stirred up a man of glorious origin,
Noble in his going out and his coming in.
Before midnight he dyed her in her blood
And incurred no guilt thereby.

When the apostle heard what she had said he said, "Who will rid me of Marwan's daughter?" `Umayr b. `Adiy al-Khatmi who was with him heard him, and that very night he went to her house and killed her. In the morning he came to the apostle and told him what he had done and he said, "You have helped God and His apostle, O `Umayr!" When he asked if he would have to bear any evil consequences the apostle said, "Two goats won't butt their heads about her," so `Umayr went back to his people.

Now there was a great commotion among B. Khatma that day about the affair of Bint Marwan. She had five sons, and when `Umayr went to them from the apostle he said, "I have killed Bint Marwan, O sons of Khatma. Withstand me if you can; don't keep me waiting." That was the first day that Islam became powerful among B. Khatma; before that those who were Muslims concealed the fact. The first of them to accept Islam was `Umayr b. `Adiy who was called "the Reader", and `Abdullah b. Aus and Khuzayma b. Thabit. The day after Bint Marwan was killed the men of B. Khatma became Muslims because they saw the power of Islam. (Ibn Ishaq, pp. 675-676.)

After the killing of Abu `Afak another person dared to publicly speak out against Muhammad. Her name was `Asma bint Marwan. Again we see how Muhammad dealt with opposition. He asked, "Who will rid me of Marwan's daughter?" `Umayr b. `Adiy al-Khatmi fulfilled Muhammad's wishes by killing `Asma at night.

There are several interesting observations from these events. The first is about Muhammad's character. Muhammad was the type of man who used assassinations to remove opposition. Whether it was an old man like Abu `Afak, or a woman like `Asma bint Marwan, if they opposed him he had them dealt with. There are more examples of Muhammad doing this [1] and he also used torture [2]. In this regard Muhammad is just like most rulers who have used murder and intimidation to establish their rule. It is no wonder that as Muhammad conquered he said:

I extend to you the invitation to accept Islam. Embrace Islam and you will be safe. (Sahih Muslim, book 19, number 4380) [3]

How can Muslims say Muhammad was a man of peace when he established his rule like this and gave this type of example?

Secondly, it shows us one way in which Islam spread to the early Arab tribes. The account specifically says that after these two murders, "Islam became powerful among B. (the tribe of) Khatma". In fact, "The day after Bint Marwan was killed ... (the tribe of) Khatma became Muslims because they saw the power of Islam." What was the "power of Islam" they saw? It was the power to kill its opponents. In this case Islam clearly spread by fear and intimidation, and Muhammad approved of this.

Theo Van Gogh publicly spoke out against Islam and he was murdered in much the same way as Abu `Afak and `Asma bint Marwan. I believe, and hope, that most Muslims disapprove of Van Gogh's murder, but if we consider the founder of Islam we see that this is how he dealt with those who opposed him. This is not an example we should follow. It is a weak man who has to kill those who speak against him. If you really want to know about the wisdom of peace that can deal with opposition without killing them, then may I suggest you read .

 

 

 

Endnotes

[1] Other examples of Muhammad having his opponents assassinated or approving of their murder:

[2] Read about 
[3] For otther examples see 

Summary: 

Those who promote Islam often do so by proclaiming how wonderful Muhammad was and what a great example his life is to humanity today. Through speaking to many Muslims and non-Muslims about Muhammad it has become clear to me that most of them have never read the original documents on his life, and they are unaware of many things he did. One of these is Muhammad's use of torture.

The earliest biography (sirat) of Muhammad's life is the work of Ibn Ishaq (85-151 A.H.) who was born in Medina. In this we learn of Muhammad's actions after he had conquered the towns of Khaybar. This event is also accepted and recorded by Ibn Kathir [1].

THE REST OF THE AFFAIR OF KHAYBAR

Kinana b. al-Rabi`, who had the custody of the treasure of B. al-Nadir, was brought to the apostle who asked him about it. He denied that he knew where it was. A Jew came (T. was brought) to the apostle and said that he had seen Kinana going round a certain ruin every morning early. When the apostle said to Kinana, "Do you know that if we find you have it I shall kill you?" he said Yes. The apostle gave orders that the ruin was to be excavated and some of the treasure was found. When he asked him about the rest he refused to produce it, so the apostle gave orders to al-Zubayr b. al-`Awwam, "Torture him until you extract what he has," so he kindled a fire with flint and steel on his chest until he was nearly dead. Then the apostle delivered him to Muhammad b. Maslama and he struck off his head, in revenge for his brother Mahmud. (Ibn Ishaq, Sirat Rasul Allah, translated as, The Life of Muhammad, (tr. A. Guillaume), Karachi: Oxford University Press, 1998, p. 515.)

This action of Muhammad teaches us a very important point about his character. He was the type of man who used torture to achieve his goals. In this case he wanted the treasure of the tribe of al-Nadir. The custodian of the treasure would not give it to him, therefore Muhammad gave the order to have him tortured. Muhammad's companions knew how to torture someone and proceeded to do so. This is the type of man Muhammad was. He could be merciful and forgiving if he wanted to be, but he could also have someone tortured for money to expand his empire. In this regard Muhammad is like ordinary kings and dictators throughout human history.

Further Reading
Read about  to spread Islam.

Country: 
Bangladesh
News Date: 
26/12/2017
Summary: 
  • Asad Noor is accused of mocking the Prophet on Facebook and Youtube
  • The 25-year-old was arrested as he tried to leave the country on Monday
  •  
Country: 
Indonesia
News Date: 
15/12/2017
Summary: 

A Protestant pastor in Indonesia is facing a blasphemy charge over his remarks about the Quran during his conversation with a taxi driver. Reverend Abraham Ben Moses, 52, was arrested after he was seen in a video in which he quoted the Quran on marriage and told the taxi driver that the Islamic prophet Muhammad was inconsistent in his teachings. According to , the pastor was also heard in the video asking the taxi driv

Pages

Subscribe to Muhammad